How Are These Types Of Magnets Made? Process introduction
Step 1: Prepare Materials for the Reaction
This step entails inspecting raw materials used in the production of Neodymium magnets. The samples are examined, cleaned, and ready for alloying. Throughout the alloying process, small quantities of other metals are added to the NdFeB alloy to improve and modify the microstructure of the final product, enhancing its magnetic properties and influencing future treatments.
Step 2: Melting
The chemical mentioned above reaction takes place in a vacuum induction furnace. To keep impurities out of the process, the products are heated by passing electrical eddy currents through them.
Step 3: Milling
Milling reduces the resultant material to a very fine particle-size powder. The typical particle size is around 3 micrometers.
Step 4: Pressing
The powder is compacted to produce a solid with a preferred magnetization direction. The powder is crushed with a die into a solid at temperatures of roughly 725°C in a procedure known as die-upsetting. The solid is then squeezed in a second die to a broader form that is roughly half its initial height. This aligns the preferred magnetization direction parallel to the pressing direction. A fixture that creates a magnetic field while pressing is used to align the particles in particular geometries.
Step 5: Sintering
In powder metallurgy, sintering is a frequent technique. The material is crushed at high temperatures (up to 1080°C) below its melting point until its particles cling to one other.
Step 6: Machining
Grinding is used to form the sintered neodymium magnets to the required shape. Complex forms are manufactured using electric discharge machining less often (EDM). Material losses due to machining are kept to a minimum owing to the high material cost. There has been no successful method of garbage recycling devised.
Step 7: Plating
Individual neodymium magnets have three layers of electroplating: nickel, copper, and nickel. This is important because unplated neodymium magnets are particularly prone to corrosion and lose their magnetic characteristics fast in the presence of moisture.
Step 8: Magnetization & Inspection
The neodymium magnets produced at this point have a “preferred” direction of magnetization, but they are not magnetized. They are put in a fixture that briefly exposes the neodymium magnet to a very high magnetic field. It’s a large wire coil that surrounds the neodymium magnet(s). To generate such a high current in such a short period, the magnetizing apparatus employs banks of capacitors and a massive voltage.
The finished neodymium magnets are examined for some qualities. The dimensions are verified using a digital measuring projector. The plating thickness is verified using x-ray fluorescence coating measuring equipment.
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